Meta-Code, Identity’s Borders

Visionary Variations of Milano

Generative Projects Designing the Identity of Milano


Celestino Soddu

Professor of Generative Design, Registered Architect

Director of Generative Design Lab, Department of Architecture and Planning

Politecnico di Milano University, Italy





City’s Identity is how people look at the future referring to their tradition.  Performing this designing procedure I investigated to find out an hypothesis able to identify and design segments of the artificial DNA of Milan.These codes were designed as an interpretation of some Milanese references: futurism, design tradition, unpredictable fashion, love for advanced possibilities, passion for innovation and the peculiar Milanese approach to complexity.

I designed all these rules like dynamic processes running to transform existing environment into possible visionary one. And I made executable these processes designing original Generative Projects with my software Argenìa.

“Visionary Variations of Milan” was an exhibition at Hong Kong International Finance Centre in June 2004 and presents a sequence of Generative Projects for Milan that try to fit the “Idea of Milan” and its peculiar identity. Each generative project is a Scenario defined by an artificial DNA. All the variations follow the same Idea of Milan using the same transforming rules but each one is unique and unrepeatable like in Nature.



Generative Design, Identity, Complex Dynamic Systems, Artificial DNA, Code of Harmony, Visionary Variations, Transforming Rules


Generative Design, the concept.

Generative Design is the idea realized as genetic code of artificial events.

The generative project is a concept-software that works producing three-dimensional unique and non-repeatable events as possible and manifold expressions of the generating idea identified as a subjective proposal of a possible world.  It works generating a sequence of scenarios, which have, all together, a strong identity: they have to be recognizable by their belonging to the same DNA.

This approach opens a new era in architectural/city design and industrial production: the challenge of a new naturalness of artificial object and environment as unique and unrepeatable scenarios. These mirror the uniqueness and un-repeatability of man and Nature. Once more man emulates nature, as in the act of making Art.

This genetic code of artificial ware identifies, like DNA in nature, the identity of a species of objects. In the future, design will be the idea and the realization of an artificial species, which its character, identity and peculiar cultural references. 


Table 1. The generative process (cycle 1-2-3-4-5) uses algorithms managing the transformation and evolution inside a non-linear system, but not the evolution of the system itself. The IDEA is the evolutionary system. It uses generative algorithms for representing a particular subjective concept defined as process. Each generative project can generate, using a lot of parallel artificial lives, an endless sequence of possible parallel results for fitting the architect’s imprinting with the client’s needs.

The system has not automatic upgrading (like genetic algorithms) because the aim is not optimising/homologising the idea-system but representing a subjective human creative identity with the fullness of all possible results. For this reason (cycle 6A, 6B) the upgrade is manually made by the architect. As in Renaissance, this upgrading activity is one of the most important human creative act during the design process. The only one that, following subjective interpretation, is impossible to emulate with AI and AL. (C.Soddu, Generative Design/Visionary Variations. Morphogenetic processes for complex systems, C&C Journal 2003)


Designing these artificial genetic codes was an enthusiastically creative operation. I had found myself returning to the Renaissance cultural approach, capable of combining Science and Art. I have created ideas formulating a code of the Harmony that belongs to the history of man and his relationship with nature. Each one of these codes identifies and represents our subjective vision of the possible, our imprinting as architects. The code of Harmony, like all codes, contains some rules that trace certain forms of behaviour. Therefore it is not a sequence, a database of events, of forms, but a definition of behaviour patterns: the transformations from what exists into future visionary scenarios managing the increasing complexity of contemporary environments. The design act changes from forming to transforming, because each form is only one of possible parallel results of an idea.

My design challenge started up in 1987 with the realization of Generative Projects of architecture, cities, industrial design and visions of Art. Today these projects are extremely complex and are able to be directly operative as interfaces with productive systems.

In an epoch marked by repeated attempts at the cloning of natural beings, Design finds again, in advanced technological fields such as non-linear dynamic systems, artificial life and artificial intelligence, the notions of the aesthetic and ethical pleasure of rediscovering the processes and characters of Nature and its unrepeatable uniqueness.


Generative Visionary Variations for Milan Identity. Designing the Code


City's Identity can be represented with an open system of transformation rules, of developing procedures able to identify how each city performs his increasing complexity.

"These procedures, sometimes consolidated by time, act controlling the increase of complexity, and represent the culturally unique and unrepeatable matrix of the site.

Like an olive tree that, overworked from the wind and from the rain becomes more and more an olive tree. It enhances its own identity, while, if grown protected in a bell of glass loses its own identity because it has not the occasion to explicate and represent its character.

Following the same way, each city explicates its own identity living the perpetual shifts of cultural moments and unpredictable events, living and using the occasions created by the increasing of complexity of the life of the man, and of his needs, but also created by the chancing of each subjective approach.

If we choose this dynamic approach for designing architecture and urban development, we certainly cannot identify the city’s identity with a database of forms or solutions that reflect the specificity of different historical and evolutionary moments. Identity is not already reachable through the repetition of facts and events.

Identity is a modus operandi toward the future.

Every new realization must increase the identity of its city. The city must make a footstep toward the attainment and improving of its unique city’s idea, that is not necessarily tied up to specific forms, colours or recognizable events but to a recognizable logic representing the cultural and ideal character of this city.

The first step is  to construct the set of codes that identify each city. We could call them codes of Harmony. And we can perform, with them, a generative town project.

Italian Renaissance culture had identified the harmony as logic linked to the process of construction of artificial environments, to the systems of relationships and proportions that tie different events inside architectures and cities. The harmony therefore is a logic that defines the modus operandi of designing acts.

The codes of Harmony, in the different cultures, has always been the way to find and use, in the construction of artificial environments, the logics that is possible to read in the natural world.

These logics are strongly tied to each different culture even if it is possible to find a common substratum between different traditions in the processes of interpretation of nature.

These logical rules, interpreting nature, define dynamics of transforming environments toward harmony. These rules are a design synthesis of the manifold aspects belonging to the construction of possible scenarios.

The operational hypothesis to manage the evolutionary dynamics of cities is to identify and to realize, as generative executable projects, the codes of harmony that represent specific urban identities." (C.Soddu paper at GA2002 conference)


In the case of Milano, I identified a set of particular rules that, linked to the transforming rules that I designed for the Italian and European town environment, are inside the Argenìa release used to generate the Visionary Variations of Milano. The results show how new architecture could increase the Idea of Milano and these manifold scenarios could be used for knowing if these Ideas fit the shared idea of Milano that its inhabitants have.

The transforming rules identified and designed in this generative projects belongs to:

1. Structures of dynamic progression of the spatial dimensions;

2. Structures of progressive transformation of the topological relationships;

3. Rules able to control the progressive scenarios represented through perspective visions;

4. Sequences of rhythms and progressive discoveries of artificial space;

5. Contemporary presences of events structured in dynamic relationships among the dimensional multiplicities of the built;

6. Coincidences and contradictions between the existing spaces and those possible;

7. Relationship between whole and parts, activating controls on the dynamics of fractal sequences proper of complex systems. 


These rules are used through a paradigm of control of complexity that represents, in the city’s evolutionary dynamics, the structure of relationships subtended in the system of the city, and that fit, at various scales, the same identity concept. This paradigm becomes the operational tool to manage connections, contaminations and mutual conditionings among the dynamics of growth of the manifold events that transform the city. 

But we cannot use the same rules in the entire city’s environment.

Identification of bifurcations in the complex system could manage and determine the plurality of possible identities living in the various districts of the same city. These manifold identities represent possible scenarios belonging to same species, to same urban identity. Urban identity, in fact, is such if it succeeds in generating different individuals of the same species, districts and places that, also in their oneness, represent different evolutionary possibilities of the same concept.


To interpret and design the transformation codes of Milan I decided to record some perspective views. I use the perspective views, like photos and pictures, because they represent a memory, where the past points out the trace of a possible path toward the future. The perspective views are so useful, also if they don’t belong to our own experience. The medieval images by Giotto and Simone Martini were, for me, a lot more interesting, allusive and conclusive then the real images of these cities when I got the interpretations of the medieval town codes. Following that, in 1987 I designed with algorithms the identity of these Italian towns, tracing the transformation rules that are the main structure of their identity.

More, the perspective views are a really useful record for fixing your interpretation. You are, again, in the peak of the perspective cone and you can redefine the fundamental relationship between your oneness and subjectivity and the oneness of the city disclosing itself for you in this particular perspective view. This is the reason why I use the perspective views also for communicating my architectural projects. More, a set of perspective views, taken in sequence, could disclose a dynamic system that I like to represent tracing a code of transformation. And if you discover that these dynamics sequences can perform an anamorphic dynamic system, multiplying the possibility to get different means following each subjective vision, you can directly operate representing this complexity with transforming rules, designing segments of the artificial DNA that could be used to manage the unique and unrepeatable identity of a city.


Concerning Milan I used some perspective views: views of Brera, of the Gallery, of the streets on the downtown, views from the Terrazza Martini end from the Duomo’s roof. The only images useless were the images from the Terrazza Martini that, being taken from the point more high of the downtown, we could value as the more important ones. In fact the view from this point are almost axonometric view, without scenes that bring back to the subject, to your own vision of the city. So they are too technical views for helping you to identify your interpretation, for helping the abduction. Interpretation and abduction are the first steps for constructing the rules of Milan’s Identity.

From the Duomo’s roof, on the contrary, Milan discloses itself when you start up to look at the city through the steeples.

Particularly I designed nine “Milan Transforming Codes” and I have added these rules to my generative software Argenìa. The aim was tracing the increasing identity of Milano with the realization of generative projects and their visionary variations.


The nine rules are:


Rule 1 - Code of Ordo/Chao

How the urban-architectural complexity increases. It identifies and manages the relationship between different scales and the relationship between interior and exterior. The particularity of Milan increasing complexity, following my interpretation, is the sliding from large scale systems ordered with easy and clear geometries, like the progressive circles that define the city map, into a chaotic, complex system of the small scale, like the geometrical complex grid of streets.

Interpreting this structure, I developed a code to be used inside the architectural systems too, managing the topological structure of spaces and frames.

Rule 2 - Code of Similarity

How the artificial system manage the repetition of similar events. This rule was abducted by the logic of the sequences and development of the Duomo's steeples. Each repetition uses similarity and not equal events, and the rules of this similarity are designed looking at the steeples. Each one unique, each one unpredictable, each one a further step to understand the idea on witch the architecture and the city is based.

Rule 3 - Code of Gaudì

How the artificial events end, part 1. The abduction was from the Duomo's steeples too. I have found a parallel logic of transformation among Duomo’s steeples and Gaudìs towers. Following that I designed a code able to manage the top of the vertical systems but also how each artificial event will end. This rule is not the only one that will manage the ending system.

Rule 4 – Code of Filarete

How the artificial events end, part 2. The abduction operates considering the sequence from the tower of Filarete, in the Castello Sforzesco, within the Velasca tower. One of the medieval codes of Milano could be designed as transforming rules able to control the extension of the space when the space itself is going to end. This rules use the “interior tensions” of the existing structure, of its interior complexity. This dynamic of space-extension could identify a particular Milanese way to construct the projections used in medieval buildings.

Rule 5 – Code Borromini

Borromini was a Baroc architect and, in Milan, Baroc style doesn’t exist. But Borromini was born in this area, in the Ticino valley, and his basic references are in this area. Following this and looking at some architectural events in Milano, I tried to add to the previous codes another one as homage to this exceptional architect. In any case, in my architectural approach, Borromini is very important and I used his reference for designing many generative codes of mine. First of all, in my Argenìa the structure of the paradigm of organization of each artificial event is based, following Borromini, on the number 27.

Rule 6 – Code Gothic

How the artificial events transform themselves when folded. The abduction is from Gothic cultural references, a strong cultural aspect of Milano. One of the sub-rules of this code is how to emboss the folding line.

Rule 7 – Code Leonardo

How develop the increasing complexity of artificial events. This code is a set of rules that identify the geometrical increasing complexity following the increasing requests of functions. The abduction was from Leonardo da Vinci machines. Leonardo is one of the main cultural references of Milano and his cultural and technical experiences, written in the Leonardo Codes, designed  Milano.

Rule 8 – Code Futurism

How artificial events show themselves. The abduction is based on my interpretation of Futurism images. Futurism was the main cultural event in Milan during the last century, and it was based mainly in Milan. Also if Milan has no physical reference to Futurism in its town shape, Milan has a futuristic DNA. Its inhabitants have a way to look at the future with a strong futuristic imprinting. My challenge is to enlighten this cultural reference, now shaded, and use it for enhancing the Milan city’s identity.

Rule 9 – Code Organic

How artificial events lean out. The cultural reference is the organic and futuristic architecture, mainly Erich Mendelsohn and Sant’Elia. These architects offer a vision of future in the field of industrial town shape, as Milan was in the last century. The external skin of the artificial events transforms itself in organic way to fit these references, like the Einstein Tower.


The Visionary Variations of Milano Identity. Generating Architectures.


Looking from the Duomo’s roof: the steeples, far the Filarete tower and, near, its first interpretation, the Velasca tower. In front of this tower we could find its negation, but in the same time its re-launching, the Pirelli skyscraper.  They are all around the Duomo, which measures, with its steeples, the boldness, the complexity and the aesthetics of each event.

The variations of the projects n. 5, 6 and 8, the IASC towers, the twin towers “Mirror of Friendship” and the “Homage to Gaudì” tower enter in the strong system of relationships among the steeples and the high buildings of Milano in a town shape that stubbornly remained linked to the 60’s of the last century. The IASC towers redefine this relationship linking these building and the Duomo through a contemporary image of complexity belonging to the transforming codes of the Milan Identity.


The Velasca tower gave me one of the main interpretation keys. It is not only a citation of the Filarete tower and of medieval towers. The final projection, with its structure on the air, tells Milano.  A strong tension of convergent and divergent strengths inside a geometric order ever checked, almost forced. Milan proposes the same type of complexity in its urban layout: the town is shaped concentric and apparently it is regular. But it develops its complexity with an interlacement of streets that confuse you and force you to look at the sun to understand in what direction you are going. The Velasca tower, with the design of its projection supports, expressly alludes to this double structure, it represents the soul of Milan, jealous of its own complexity and that loves to appear minimalist.  

From this interpretation a first hypothesis of code was born, and it is applicable to the structure of the architectures too. I have designed some rules of transformation that contaminates the structural system of the buildings operating on the order of some structural events.  These events had to project but instead they only sporadically appear in the exterior shin, almost hidden emerging, maintaining them inside the simple external geometry of the building. In the meantime the interior structure of these buildings, as the interior grid of streets in Milan, appears with a not random development, strongly characterized by functional needs but amazing, almost labyrinthine. This code of transformation, besides, folding up the space, exalts the topological structure enhancing relationships of proximity among spaces that, before the transformation, were physically distant but topologically were thought near. This code of transformation represents a way of developing, of growing, of building in progress recognizable events as belonging to a same logic, with a strong identity that emerges each time with unique and un-repeatable scenarios. 


In the realized visionary projects, this system mostly explodes to the outside in the twin towers "Mirror of Friendship" next to the tower Velasca and the bell tower, while it is all to inside the building system in the project of the Traveller’s tower next to the Pirelli skyscraper. 

But, as all the other transforming codes, these rules are present in almost all the visionary projects for Milan. These codes are in the towers "Homage to Gaudi" where the inside tensions appear only as contaminations of the complexity three-dimensional constructive order that finds again the similarity with the steeples of the Duomo. The same rules are used in the Futurism Museum where the contamination is among tilted orders that sometimes are projected out of the skin and the closed system of the geometry of base.

The three visionary variations of the Futurism Museum follow three different ways to use this code. In the 1st variation the code Ordo/Chao and the code Filarete involve all the spaces, from the interiors to the exterior skin, as is clearly represented in the axonometric and section views. In the 2nd and 3rd variation, on the contrary, the code Filarete involves only the structure of the system, as in Velasca tower. In the 3rd variation the code Ordo/Chao works also in the geometry of roofs and terraces. In the 2nd and, also if less, in the 3rd variation the transformations made with the code Borromini are clear in the shaping of the roofs. In the 2nd variation it operates transformations with the contamination among the code Borromini and the code Gaudì. In the 3rd the code Borromini manages the increasing complexity of only one of the roof’s domes.


The 1st variation of Futurism Museum project needs some further specifications. Over the code of transformation “Filarete” I mainly used in the first variation the code Organic that operates the transformation of the skin of the building in organic way referring to the imaginary based on the Einstein tower of Mendelsohn. The other two variations of Futurism Museum are based on codes abducted from Sant’Elia visionary architectures. These reference are an important point in the construction of a possible identity of Milan, because Milan is the city where the most advanced experimentations in the Italy of the beginning of last century happened.  Despite it, Milan has not existing physical characters linked to this experiences. This historical memory could be part of the genetic patrimony of this city. 


In the twin towers "Mirror of Friendship", besides, another important code of transformation, the code Gothic is activated related to the nerves of the building, based on the folding approach to architectural walls. For instance these angles are embossed and white, in comparison to the dark red of the walls, as in the bell tower that is in front of the Duomo and that intercepts the sight toward the tower Velasca. In these twin towers I expressly used a code of transformation that defines how to turn the angle. This rule is not only applied in the vertical angles but in other different orders, at different scales. Going ahead with other codes, in the Twin Towers Mirror of Friendship we can easy identify what from surrounding building is used to increase the Milan's Identity.


In the same way, looking at the visionary variations of the project Brera Utopia’s Museum, it’s possible to link the applied transforming rules to the façade of the surrounding buildings, particularly to the one on the left. And in the same time, the geometric structure of the building follows the reference to the concept of castle, as it’s possible to understand looking at the axonometric view of one of the variations of this project.

But these are only some examples showing where one or two codes of transformation had particular power. All the 11 generative projects were generated using all the rules designed by me for the Identity of Milan.  The visionary variations were generated contaminating these particular rules with all the other that represent my cultural references and my experience as architect. This is the reason why these rules are not so axiomatic but they emerge in all the projects, from the detail to the whole image, giving a Milanese feeling to these architectures. All these projects together show my idea of the possible future of Milano, of what it is possible to point out for increasing the wonderful cultural reference and identity of this city.





Filarete Tower in the town shape (fig. 1,3), view from the Duomo’s roof (fig.2) and the steeples of Duomo with the Velasca Tower (fig.4)

The Generative Projects in Milano

(increasing Identity of Milano)




(3 variation)


The site: Milan Downtown, Largo Augusto and Corso di Porta Vittoria.  It's possible to see the Duomo in the background. The building on the left is changed by the Futurism Museum project.

Futurism Museum in Milano.First Visionary Variation.

Futurism Museum in Milano. Second Visionary Variation.

Futurism Museum in Milano. Third Visionary Variation.






Futurism Museum in Milano. One of the 3D model  generated by Argenia with its interior spaces. These axonometric views belong to the 1st variation.





The project is placed in one of the more interesting residence district of Milano, closed to Santa Maria delle Grazie.

The building is multifunctional, with residences, offices and commercial devices. It is designed to set up, inside and outside, the character and quality of a Milanese city environment.

Particularly the terraces and the interior hall use the reference of the old “case di ringhiera” that have characterized Milan town environment in the last century.




The site, in a central residential area of Milan.

Generated 3D model and axonometric section of the Freedom House.


Interior space of Freedom House. View of the terrace.

Interior central space of Freedom House. The old “case di ringhiera” were the references used for designing the transforming rules of the interior spaces.

Freedom House in Milan. One of the generated variations.



(5 variations)


The project follows one of the more advanced proposals for the incoming new functional structure of town environment, the IRTAL, Intergenerational Residence Tower for Advanced Living that defines and set up a residence for students together with old professors in a system that mix residences, services, cultural activities and labs/studios. The residence system is organized for enhancing the cultural exchange and reciprocal helping.

It is located in Via Melchiorre Gioia, near Brera, inside one of the Milanese districts that have, today, the more increasing complexity evolutionary processes in Milan.


On the left:

The site, via Melchiorre Gioia, the increasing complexity business district in Milano. The building on the left was changed for constructing the Intergenerational Residence Tower for Advanced Living.

On the right:

IRTAL, Variation #1

The site before the projects and two generated 3D models with their views



IRTAL, Variation #2, Variation #3,  Variation #4, Variation #5

(3 variations)


The project is inside one of the more famous districts in Milan, Brera. That is also the district of Art with the Brera Fine Arts Academy and the Pinacoteca. The street is via Brera, the Brera Academy is on the right, at the end of the street, and the Scala theatre is at the end of the street, behind us.

The building substituted is a commercial building. The project proposes a new Museum, the Utopia’s Museum, in front of the existing Brera Academy and Pianacoteca in way to enhance the Art vocation of this district. The transforming codes used are the same used for the other projects with a particular attention to the interpretation of the existing building on the left of the view.




The site. Brera, the district of art in Milan. On the right, at the end of the street, the Brera Academy of Art and the Pinacoteca.

Brera Utopia’s Museum, Variation #1

Brera Utopia’s Museum, Variation #2

Brera Utopia’s Museum, Variation #3


The position of the building is in the angle where the street made a sliding. This position gives to the project the possibility to enhance, with the geometry too, the role of the Utopia’s Museum in the “Art” district of Milan. The geometry code of the entire building system is abduced by the traditional castles, as it’s possible to verify looking at the axonometric views of the 3rd variation. The wire frame image shows the complexity of the geometrical system that uses the “castle” geometry for the envelope and the transforming rules , like Ordo/Chao and Leonardo codes fpr the increasing complexity of the interior system of spaces.

Brera Utopia’s Museum Variation #3, wireframe and shaded axonometric views.



A new tower in the townshape, looking at Milan from the Duomo’s steeples. (3 variations)

These project and its 3 visionary variations are an extension of the Duomo’s roof into the Milan downtown. The aim is to increase the complexity of Milan using, in a contemporary way and with contemporary town buildings the Harmony codes abducted by the history and tradition of Milan.

All the transforming rules designed for Milan were used to design the artificial DNA of this project.

The site, looking from the Duomo’s steeples.

Homage to Gaudi, three tower's variations in front of Duomo, Axonometric views.


These generated 3d models was produced using this artificial DNA with a mix system of rules controlled by a paradigm abducted by Gaudì.



(4 Variations)

The site, looking from Duomo's roof


Looking from the steeples of the Duomo at the Milan town shape.

The proposal is a building for the future of Milan, the IASC, Interdisciplinary Advanced Studies Centre.

It will redefine the relationship between the tradition and the recent history, represented by the high towers of the 60’s.

All these four variations used the same transforming codes, the same DNA. They are 4 different individuals of the same species, as the steeples of Duomo are.





Interdisciplinary Advanced Studies Center. Variation #1,2,3,4



(2 variations)

The Gallery is one of the most important spaces in Milan and, following that, it must represent Milan’s identity.

This project of a New Gallery in Milan has two variations but, on the contrary of the other variations, these are not parallel results but they represent two following steps of the evolutionary path that I ran to fit the Identity of Milan.

While the 1st one is one of the starting steps, the 2nd represent the idea of interlacement among exterior and interior spaces and the contamination among urban and architectural spaces that reflects one of the segment of Milan’s DNA.

In this 3rd Visionary Variation it’s possible to recognize the transformations made by the Milanese codes that I designed for the Identity of Milan



The New Gallery in Milan. Variation #1, Variation #2


The site in the downtown of Milano. The New Gallery is placed in the existing square between the two buildings on the left


The site in a view from the Duomo’s roof. On the right the existing Velesca tower.

The Mirror of Friendship Exhibition Buildings, The twin towers are variation of the same artificial DNA.


9.TRAVELLER’S TOWER  (3 Variations)

The site, the square in front of the Central Train Station, with the existing Pirelli skyscraper by Gio Ponti.

Traveller’s Tower, Variation #1, 2, 3


The generated 3D models of the 1st variation and the section




(2 variations)

The site, in the business district. The building on the left is substituted with the Thermal Baths and Cultural Centre building.

Thermal baths and Cultural Centre, Variation #1and 2


The Milan Gallery. Generated chairs, coffee-machine and a woman portrait.

Variation #1, 2, 3




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Duncan Graham-Rowe, Design Genes, Blueprint Magazine, August 2001

Soddu, C"Generative Natural Flux", proceedings of Generative Art Conference, Milan, AleaDesign Publisher, December 2001

Soddu, C, “Generative Art, Visionary Variations”, Catalog of the exhibition at Visual Art Centre, Hong Kong Museum, 2002

Soddu, C, “New Naturality: a Generative approach to Art and Design”, Leonardo Magazine 35, MIT press, July 2002

Colabella, E, Soddu, C, “Generative Art, Preludi natural mirrors”, proceedings of ISEA2002, Nagoya, Japan, published by Inter Society for the Electronic Arts, Japan.

Soddu, C, “”Clarity, complexity harmony and safety: Identity’s Generative codes build liveable cities”, Proceedings of Cities Asia Summit, Singapore 5-6 Nov. 2002, PSA Pub., Singapore

Soddu, C, “La Citta’ Ideale, generative codes design identity”, Proceedings of GA2002, GDL Pub., December 2002, Milano

Soddu, C, ““Generative Art, Visionary Variations of Washington DC”, catalogue of the exhibition DigItalyArt, IDB Cultural Center, Washington DC, 2003.

Soddu, C, Generative Design Visionary Variations. Morphogenetic processes for complex future identities,  in Communication and Cognition Journal, 2003

Soddu, C, Visionary Esthetics and Architectural Variations, GA2003 proceedings, GDLab publisher, Milan 2003