Evolving the Shape of Things to Come: A Comparison of Direct Manipulation and Interactive Evolutionary Design


Andreas Lund

Interactive Institute, Tools for Creativity and
Department of Informatics, Umeå University.

e-mail: andreas.lund@interactiveinstitute.se






This paper is concerned with differences between direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design as two fundamentally different interaction styles for creative tasks. In order to empirically compare the two interaction styles, two prototypes for typeface design were designed and implemented. An experimental evaluation was carried out involving both prototypes and two different kinds of task, one where the goal was clearly defined and one where the subjects had to formulate the goal themselves. An analysis of the results suggests that participants of the experiment experienced the direct manipulation prototype to offer a higher degree of ability to affect the design of typefaces, compared to interactive evolutionary design. Subjects also experienced themselves to be more active while using the direct manipulation interface. The interactive evolutionary design prototype was reported to being most suited for creative tasks, while the direct manipulation prototype was experienced to be more suitable for tasks where the goal is clearly defined.

1. Introduction

To varying degree, different artifacts may be described in terms of themes and variations on themes. The figure below shows the letter ‘A’ in four different typefaces, each one unique in its own right. Still, each typeface has a lot of features in common that make them similar in many respects. Put differently, the typefaces may be understood as different variations on the same theme.

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Given the notions of theme and variation on theme, design may – partly – be conceived as an activity that includes exploration of a theme in search for pleasing variations. In this example and in this paper, the object of design is typefaces but could be something else, sunglasses, china, human-computer interfaces or other kinds of objects. On a concrete level, the form of an artifact may be described in terms of its absolute characteristics. For instance, a specific variation on a typeface theme may have a certain weight, width and other measures that define the exact form of the letters. On an abstract level, the form may be described in terms of potential characteristics, that is, a description that allows for a multitude of concrete variations, each with its own unique form and qualities. Thus, an abstract description of an artifact is rather a description of a design space, a set of potential artifacts, a set of potential variations on a theme.

Now, as suggested by Ben Shneiderman [14], a challenge for designers of user interfaces and human-computer interaction researchers is to design and develop information technology that supports creativity. This paper reports on a project where I have tried to take on that challenge. The project aims at comparing different interaction styles that can be used to support creative exploration of design spaces. In this paper, I am concerned with two fundamentally different ways of interactively exploring a typeface design space: direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design. However, it is not the typographical aspects of this design space that are at the center of this paper. Rather, my main interest is the knowledge and understanding of users’ experiences from using different modes of interaction in the exploration of design spaces. More specifically, I am interested in (1) how users experience their ability to affect the object of design while using the different interaction styles, (2) the level of experienced activity, (3) whether they had fun using the prototypes and (4) if users think that one interaction style is more appropriate than the other for a specific kind of task.

The outline of the paper is as follows. First, I present what I take to be important aspects of the two interaction styles discussed in this paper: direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design. Second, the design of two software prototypes is presented followed by a presentation of an experimental evaluation that was conducted as part of the project. Finally, the results of the evaluation are.

2. Direct Manipulation

Direct manipulation interfaces, a term coined by Ben Shneiderman [12] in the mid-seventies, are the kind of interface that is characteristic of most modern personal computer application user interfaces. Typically, direct manipulation interfaces incorporate a model of a context (such as a desktop environment) supposedly familiar to users. Rather than giving textual commands (i.e. "remove file.txt", "copy file1.txt file2.txt") to an imagined intermediary between the user and the computer, the user acts directly on the objects of interest to complete a task. More precisely, crucial features of direct manipulation interfaces include [13] continuous and perceivable representations of the objects of interest, physical actions instead of complicated syntax and incremental actions that are rapid and reversible.

Undoubtedly, direct manipulation has played an important role in making computers accessible to non-computer experts. Less certain are the reasons why direct manipulation interfaces are so successful. It has been suggested [5] that this kind of interaction style caters for a sense of directness, control and engagement in the interaction with the computer. The possibilities of incremental action with continuous feedback are believed to be an important factor of the attractiveness of direct manipulation. Not least importantly, interaction with direct manipulation systems is often experienced as enjoyable [13]. However, direct manipulation is also associated with some problems that make it a less than ideal interaction style in some situations. Recently new interaction styles have emerged that address the shortcomings of direct manipulation in various ways. One example are so-called software agents [8] that, quite the contrary to direct manipulation, act on behalf of the user and alleviate the user from some of the attention and cognitive load traditionally involved in the interaction with large quantities of information. However, this relief comes at the cost of lost user control and requires the user to put trust into a pseudo-autonomous piece of software.

3. Interactive Evolutionary Design

Another emerging style of human-computer interaction of special interest for creative tasks is that of interactive evolutionary design (sometimes referred to as aesthetic selection). Interactive evolutionary design is inspired by notions from Darwinian evolution and may be described as a way of exploring a large – potentially infinite – space of possible design configurations based on the judgment of the user. This approach hereafter referred to as interactive evolutionary design, typically involves the use of genetic algorithms [9] in combination with a human evaluator.

Rather than, as is the case with direct manipulation, directly influencing the features of an object, the user influences the design by means of expressing her judgment of design examples. Each design example can be thought of as consisting of two different representations, a genotype and a phenotype. The phenotypical representation is a concrete and perceivable rendition of an object that the user evaluates. The genotypical representation is an encoded description of the traits that a specific object in the design space has. The genotypical representation can be implemented in many different ways, but the simplest kind is a string of binary digits with fixed length. Examples judged positively by the users are given an increased possibility of being selected by the genetic algorithm to carry their traits to a new generation of design examples by means of a reproduction process. The reproduction process typically involves some form of crossover, that is, the offspring’s traits are a combination of traits from the parents. The offspring may also be subject to mutation in order to add an amount of random change to the offspring. The offspring that constitute the new generation is, like the first generation, subject to the scrutiny of the user. In an iterative fashion, new examples are produced based on the selections made by the user and – hopefully – each new generation contains examples that converge towards configurations that are well adapted to the preferences of the user.

Variations of interactive evolutionary design have been employed to support design and creation of a variety of objects. For instance, Karl Sims [15] has applied interactive evolutionary techniques to evolve artistic 2D images and 3D plant structures. Another well know example of artistic work is that of Todd and Latham [17] who developed Mutator, a program that supports exploration of 3D form. An interesting, non-artistic application of interactive evolutionary design is the work by Gatarski [4] who applied interactive evolution to design web-advertising banners. Much related to this paper is the parametric font definition that allows for breeding of typefaces, by Ian Butterfield and Matthew Lewis [3]. Matthew Lewis maintains a web site [7] with links to papers and other resources related to interactive evolutionary design. Peter J. Bentley’s book Evolutionary Design [2] gives an excellent overview of evolutionary approaches to design, both interactive and non-interactive.

A striking difference between direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design is that direct manipulation seems to imply an ideology that a user should at all times be in control of what is going on at the user interface. Interactive evolutionary design may be understood as an approach where the user may expect the unexpected, at the cost of giving up some amount of control. In the context of creative tasks, this aspect may add an important dimension to human-computer interaction that direct manipulation cannot provide. It seems plausible that many people do not generally exhibit the skills, training and experience or do not have the time required for advanced design work. In this respect, interactive evolutionary design is very promising considering that most people are competent at expressing likes and dislikes about their physical and social environments, that is, they have a skill for judgment. Interactive evolutionary design may be understood as a way to capitalize on that competence to make design processes accessible a wider audience.

4. Prototype Design

In the following three subsections the prototypes used in the experiment is presented.

4.1 A Typeface design space

The design of the two prototypes have been guided by the principle that they should be as similar as possible to each other in all respects, except those features that concern the style of interaction. One important common feature of the prototypes is the notion of a typeface design space, that is, the space of possible typefaces that can be explored by the prototypes. The design space is organized by a number of parameters (seven in the current implementation) and constitutes an abstract parameterized typeface. The parameterized typeface includes a description of the shape of each glyph. However, these descriptions are not formulated in terms of absolute values, but in terms of parameters. Thus, the design of a specific typeface in the design space may be conceived of as a kind collaborative design with contributions from both the designer of the abstract parameterized typeface and from the user/designer that decides on the values for the parameters.

The design of each glyph in this typeface is partly governed by one or more of the seven parameters. The overall design is deliberately made in a way that makes it possible to have relatively few parameters with application to as many glyphs as possible. In other words, I have tried to avoid a design space where a parameter is of relevance only to one or very few glyphs. Rather, a change of one parameter should propagate through out the whole typeface.

In the table below the effect of the different parameters is illustrated.



Vertical bar width

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Horizontal bar width

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Outer roundness

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Inner roundness

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Lower case horizontal scale

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Lower case vertical scale

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The idea of a parametric typeface is by no means new. A well-known example is Donald E. Knuth’s meta-font. A meta-font is, as defined by Knuth, a “schematic description of how to draw a family of fonts” [6]. Such a description does not define one single font but rather a set of potential fonts. Another example of parametric fonts is the multiple masters font technology from Adobe, Inc (see for instance [16]). A multiple master font is parametric in the sense that it includes two or more glyph outlines. These outlines confine a design space of potential fonts that are realized by means of interpolation between the included outlines.

In this paper the parametric fonts themselves are not the core issue. However, they are an interesting domain of design that gives rise to challenges concerning the tools and methods for exploring very large design spaces. Knuth expresses the richness of parametric designs in the following way [6, p. 292]:

So many variations are possible, in fact, that the author keeps finding new settings of the parameters that give surprisingly attractive effects not anticipated in the original design; the parameters that give the most readability and visual appeal may never be found since there are infinitely many possibilities.

Knuth’s remark concerns parametric typefaces, but could most likely be extrapolated to account for exploration of parametric design spaces in general and motivates efforts aiming at investigating how to better support and understand design space exploration. In the following sections I will present the design of two prototypes that each embodies a distinct style of supporting interactive exploration of such spaces.

4.2 Direct manipulation prototype

As is the case for both prototypes, the intention has been to keep the design as clean as possible and to include only that which is essential for each interaction style. Below is an image of the version of the direct manipulation prototype that was used in the experimental evaluation.

As seen in the picture, the user interface contains only two kinds of elements: a typeface display and a number of sliders. Each slider corresponds to one of the seven design space parameters described in the previous section. A user of this prototype can navigate through the typeface design space by dragging the slider handles to the right and left. As the user drags a slider, the visual display is continuously updated.

Other version of this prototype contains some features that are left out in the version described here. For instance, the possibility to save the typeface as an encapsulated postscript (eps) is not included. Also left out from this version, are slider labels with the name of the different parameters. The labels were considered to be included, but I decided to leave them out under the assumption that the meaning of the textual labels could just as well be inferred the feedback of slider movement. However, the soundness of this decision is by no means obvious and could very well motivate an experiment on its own.

4.3 Interactive evolutionary design prototype

The interactive evolutionary design prototype has exactly the same design space as the direct manipulation prototype, but offers a very different way of exploring that space. The image below shows a screen shot of the user interface.

The list on the left side of the window contains typeface examples generated by the program. In the version used in the evaluation, the list always contained fifty examples. This set of typefaces constitutes a generation. On a monitor with a resolution of 1024x768, five typeface examples at a time are visible in the list. The user selects typefaces that she or he in some way finds attractive – aesthetically or otherwise – by double-clicking a typeface in the list of generated typefaces. As soon as the user has selected a typeface, a copy of it appears in the list on the right side of the window. The selected typeface is not removed from the list to the left. Thus, a single typeface may be selected several times. Below the two lists there is a button labeled “Nya exempel” (Swedish for “New examples”). By clicking the button, the right list is cleared and a new set of fifty examples appears in the left list. In this context, it may be necessary to briefly go into some of details of the inner workings of the prototype.

The typefaces visible in the interface may be considered as phenotypical representations of typefaces. Each typeface also has a genotypical representation, that is, an encoded specification of the typeface. Conceptually, the genotypical representation of a typeface consists of a chromosome containing seven genes, one for each design space parameter. Each gene is represented by a string of binary digits. A chromosome can be thought of as something that identifies an exact location in the design space, an exact description of a typeface. In order to produce a new generation of typefaces, the genetic algorithm assigns a probability to each typeface selected by the user so that they have equal chance to become parents in a reproduction. The reproduction always involves two parents and always results in two offspring. The genetic operators involved in the reproduction of typefaces are mutation and crossover. In the particular version of the prototype used in the evaluation, the probability for crossover and mutation to occur is fixed and set to 0.08 and 0.7, respectively. Another version of the prototype includes slider controls to adjust probabilities for mutation and crossover.

5. Experiment design

In the design of the experiment it was considered important to allow each subject to work with both of the two prototypes and with different kinds of tasks. Two accomplish this the experiment involved two kinds of tasks. In one kind of task – referred to as the “copy task” – each subject were asked to copy or recreate a typeface as displayed on a card presented to him or her during the experiment. The displayed typefaces were generated from the same design space as the subjects explored in the experiment. All the subjects performed this task with both. The purpose of this task was to mimic a situation where the goal is explicit and clearly defined. The second kind of task – referred to as the “creative task” – required more creativity on part of the experiment participant as this task did not involve recreating what some else had already designed. In this kind of task, subjects were asked to design a textual logotype for a company. In the fictitious scenarios presented to the participants the logotype should appear on the products and in marketing material of by the company. The purpose of this kind of task was to trigger a creative process to be able to assess how the different prototypes supported that process.

The experiment involved 16 subjects, eight women and eight men. Each subject used both prototypes and performed both kinds of tasks with each prototype. The duration of a typical experiment session was on average 30 minutes. During each session, subjects were asked to think aloud to give a verbal account of their interaction with the prototype. These verbal accounts were recorded and transcribed afterwards. The subjects were also asked to answer ten questions in a questionnaire.

6. Analysis

6.1 Experienced ability to affect design

As mentioned earlier in this paper, direct manipulation is known to cater for a strong sense of directness and control, leaving the user in charge of the object of manipulation. Intuitively, interactive evolutionary design seems to be a more indirect way of interacting with computers. Two questions in the questionnaire concerned the degree to which the users experienced that they could affect the design of typefaces using the two different prototypes:

Q1: To what degree do you experience that you can affect the design of the typefaces using tool A (direct manipulation)
Q2: To what degree do you experience that you can affect the design of the typefaces using tool B (interactive evolutionary design)

Prior to analyzing the results of these two questions I suspected that the users taking part in the evaluation would report that they experienced the direct manipulation prototype to offer a higher degree of ability to affect the design of typefaces, compared to interactive evolutionary design. Just by looking at the scale and the different means in the table of descriptive statistics below seem to confirm that intuition.

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In order to establish if this difference is a statistically significant difference, a paired t-test was carried out:

It turns out that the difference is very highly significant which more than well confirms the initial assumption about how the subjects would experience the different tools’ ability to cater for a sense of being able to affect the design of the typefaces.

6.2 Experienced level of activity

Direct manipulation is – almost by definition  – a very active mode of interaction. Indeed, the requirement to be active in order for the computer to be reactive is something that sometimes motivates alternative interaction styles, such as software agents. My initial intuitions about interactive evolutionary design were that it would be experienced as a comparatively passive mode of interaction in the context of typeface design. The users were given the following two questions:

Q3: Were you active or passive while using tool B (interactive evolutionary design)?
Q4: Were you active or passive while using tool A (direct manipulation)?

As shown on the scale and in the table below, the mean for the level of experienced activity using the direct manipulation interface is very high (and with a fairly low standard deviation). This may not be very surprising. However, I would have expected that the mean for the interactive evolutionary design interface to be somewhat lower than reported.

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A t-test reveals that the difference of experienced activity is significant, although not to a very great extent (p < 0.05).

It should be mentioned that some subjects asked me about how to interpret these two questions. On a more speculative basis, the problems of interpreting the questions may indicate that both direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design involve a rather high level of activity, but different in character. While the activity in direct manipulation typically involves the manipulation of one single object at a time, interactive evolution involves an active selection from a potentially large set of objects.


6.3 Experienced level of amusement

In the section about direct manipulation in the beginning of this paper, it is observed that direct manipulation typically is associated with a high degree of subjective satisfaction, that is, people tend to find it pleasurable to work with direct manipulation interfaces. I am interested in whether there are differences between direct manipulation interfaces and interactive evolutionary design concerning this aspect of human-computer interaction. In order to investigate if subjects were bored or amused using the two different prototypes the questionnaire contained the following questions:

Q5: Was it fun to use tool A? (direct manipulation)
Q6: Was it fun to use tool B? (interactive evolutionary design)

By looking at the means of the ratings made by the subjects it seems as if both prototypes were experienced as being fun to use.


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As shown on the scale, it appears as if the mean for the direct manipulation prototype is slightly higher than the mean for interactive evolutionary design. However, a t-test reveals that this difference is not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

As a note of caution, it is not obvious that what is being experienced to be fun in the evaluation are tools or interactions styles themselves. It may very well be the case that the task domain, typeface design, is the source of amusement.

6.4 Experienced predictability of decisions and actions

The some extent, the intelligibility of interaction styles and user interfaces is determined by the degree to which users experience some amount of rationality concerning the relation between their actions and the computer’s response to the actions. In the questionnaire, I tried to approach this issue by asking whether the subjects considered the consequences of their actions and decisions to be predictable for the different tools:

Q9: How would you describe the consequences of your decisions and actions using tool A? (direct manipulation)
Q10: How would you describe the consequences of your decisions and actions using tool B? (interactive evolutionary design)

If we look at the scale it appears at first sight as if the consequences of users’ decisions and actions are experienced to be more predictable when using the direct manipulation interface prototype. This may not be very surprising since one of the cornerstones of direct manipulation is small, incremental action with continuous feedback that allows the user to see what is happening as a result of her actions.

Adobe Systems

However, if we look at the standard deviations for the two means they are fairly high and a t-test reveals that we cannot conclude – with statistical significance – that there is a difference between the two means (p>0.05). Thus, based on the data from this evaluation, the two prototypes are experienced to be equally predictable.


6.5 For what kind of task are the different tools most suited?

As mentioned before, each subject used both prototypes for solving two different kinds of task. The questionnaire included two questions to capture if the subjects experienced one kind of tool as more apt for one kind of task. The questions were formulated as:

Q7: For what kind of task is tool A (direct manipulation) most suited?
Q8: For what kind of task is tool B (interactive evolutionary design) most suited?

As in all other eight questions, the answer took the form as a marking on a continuous scale. The extremes on the scales were “Definitely type 1” and  “Definitely type 2”. Type 1 referred to the kind of task where the user was supposed to recreate a pre-designed typeface as displayed on a card. Type 2 referred to the kind of task where the user had to formulate the goal on her own based on a short scenario.

In the analysis, the answer markings on the scales were re-interpreted as signifying that a specific tool – A or B – were experienced as being suited for either type 1 tasks or type 2 tasks. It was decided that markings on the exact middle of the scales should be left out of the data set. However, this was never the case. The coding resulted in a frequency table:


Task 1

Task 2


Direct manipulation




Interactive evolution












If we look at this table, it appears as if the direct manipulation prototype was experienced by the subjects to be more suited for the kind of task where the goal is clearly defined and explicit, whereas the interactive evolutionary design prototype seems to be experienced as more suited for the more creative, scenario-based kind of task.

To test whether the frequency distribution among the cells in the table really is not just coincidental a chi square test was employed:

The chi square test tells us that the difference in frequency distribution among the cells is very highly significant. Thus, it seems as if there is a real difference concerning the way that subjects experienced the suitability of the different prototypes.

6.6 Some observations from verbal accounts

Only so much can be captured in a questionnaire like the one used in this evaluation. In order to tap into the richness of users’ interaction with the prototypes I made voice recordings during the course of interaction. From these recordings I have made some observations that I find interesting.

Mental modeling

When the participants of the evaluation used the direct manipulation prototype the typical behavior was of an explorative kind. They tried to make sense of the interface by dragging the different sliders to the left and right just to see what happened. Some were very careful while others, rather violently, shoved the sliders around between the extremes. Based on that observation, the participants did not seem to have problems to make sense of what was going on at the user interface.

Quite the contrary to the direct manipulation interface, the interactive evolutionary design prototype seemed to be more of a challenge concerning the meaning attributed to the interface and the hidden mechanisms behind it. It seems as if the subjects in a very active way during the course of interaction tried to develop mental models [1, 10] of the system, that is, they tried to develop theories that could explain the behavior of the program they were using. Notably, some subjects tried to figure out the relation between the typefaces they selected and the new typefaces that were generated from the selection. Some subjects seemed to try to make sense of this relation as a kind of average relation. The following quotation shows how one subject made this very explicit (translated from Swedish):

Well, you do not really know how he [the computer] does it, you don’t know if it pays off to take one extreme at one end and one extreme at the other end and believe it will become something in between. I don’t know.

Other subjects used a vocabulary that included words such as “mixing”, “blending” and other words that I take to imply an understanding of the generative mechanism as an averaging of parameters, not a recombination. Also of interest is that some subjects seemed to attribute meaning to the order in which newly generated typefaces were presented in the list. However, the program is not designed to do any kind of sorting. Nonetheless, some subjects seemed to experience the typefaces at the top of the list as having more in common with the ones they selected from the previous generation of typefaces. As a response to my question, if he could recognize the qualities of the selected typefaces in the generated set, one subject responded:

Several of the first ones are variations of the two I selected, until you come down here [the person scrolls down the list]. I would say that it varies so much that I can’t say that [there is a resemblance with the two previously selected].

It is not obvious how to assess the significance of this kind of interpretation of the interface, but it seems likely that it may affect the outcome of that which is being designed. If objects at the end of the list are experienced to be of less of interest users may tend not to select them.

Convergence and surprise

As mentioned previously, the results from the questionnaire seem to point in the direction that interactive evolutionary design is more preferable for tasks where the goal in not clearly and explicitly defined. Partly, a reason for that may be that interactive evolutionary design is based on the presentation of examples, the creator is given something to react to. Indeed, the whole point of this approach is to use these reactions as a driving force in design processes. However, one crucial aspect seems to be to strike a balance between how this force is used to cater for convergence of the design and the degree of surprise. On the one hand, user reactions to design examples must be handled in a way that adapts, in this case, the typeface design to the expressed user preferences. On the other hand, a supportive system should also allow for some amount of surprise and unexpected designs. If this balance is found, it may be possible to achieve a dynamic relation between the user’s preferences and the behavior of the computer program. Put differently, if such a balance is found, interactive evolutionary design may not only be used as a tool to externalize a mental vision of that which is being designed, but also change such visions, by means of presenting the unexpected.

While observing the participants of the evaluation it appeared as if some of them experienced both a high level of convergence and some amount of surprise. For instance, when one of the participants used the interactive evolutionary design prototype to design the Caveman logotype he suddenly noticed a generated typeface and expressed:

Wow! This one felt very much like the Godfather [the movie]! That’s cool. I’ll take the godfather.

At the end he selected a “Godfather”-like typeface as the typeface for the logotype. Other participants expressed similar experiences that pointed in the direction that they could recognize their selections in the generated typefaces at the same time as some typefaces were very unexpected. Some reacted quite strongly when they saw something that had not expected and that kind of reaction was rare for the direct manipulation interface, probably due to the fact that direct manipulation – as implemented in my prototype – makes it possible for users to continuously see what is happening while changing one parameter at a time. The balance between convergence and surprise is of course heavily dependent on the probability for mutation. Initially, I considered allowing the participants to vary the mutation rate as they liked but decided that it would make a comparison of user experiences almost impossible, considering that mutation rate affects the outcome very dramatically.

7. Concluding discussion

The empirical investigation suggests that the participants clearly experienced that the direct manipulation interface provided better support for affecting the design of the typefaces. However, from my observations of the experiment sessions, interactive evolutionary design appears to have supported creativity in a way that direct manipulation did not. This is also confirmed by the participants’ inclination to experience interactive evolution as more suitable for creative tasks. In this context, it is interesting that the experienced activity level was significantly lower for interactive evolutionary design prototype compared to direct manipulation. In a way, it may be interpreted as if we get more by doing less.

It is an open issue to what extent we can generalize from the results of this investigation to other kinds of design spaces and other contexts. However, it seems to me as if one lesson to learn from the investigation is that the important issue is not what interaction style is better than the other. Rather, I would suggest that a multitude of different modes of interaction, including direct manipulation and evolutionary approaches, should be combined to cater for the need imposed by situation and individual preferences.

8. References

1.      Allen, Robert B. (1997) Mental Models and User Models. In M. Helander, T. K. Landauer, P. Prabhu (eds.). Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction. Elsevier Science B. V.

2.      Bentley, Peter J. (1999). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufmann.

3.      Butterfield, I. And Lewis, M. (2000). Web-page: Evolving Fonts. http://www.cgrg.ohio-state.edu/~mlewis/AED/Fonts/

4.      Gatarski, Rikard. (1999). Evolutionary Banners: an Experiment with Automated Advertising Design. In Proceedings of COTIM-1999. Rhode Island, RI, USA, September 26-29.

5.      Hutchins, E. L., Hollan, J. D. and Norman, D. A. (1986). Direct manipulation interfaces. In D. A. Norman and S. W. Draper (Eds.) User centered system design, 87-124. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

6.      Knuth, D. E. (1999). Digital Typography. CSLI Publications. Stanford. Ca.

7.      Lewis, M. (2000). Web page: Visual Aesthetic Evolutionary Design Links. http://www.cgrg.ohio-state.edu/~mlewis/aed.html.

8.      Maes, Patti. (1994). Agents that reduce work and information overload. In Communications of the ACM. Vol. 37, No. 7 (pp. 31-40, 146).

9.      Mitchell, Melanie. (1996). An introduction to genetic algorithms. The MIT Press.

10.  Norman, D. A. (1988). The Psychology of Everyday Things.  New York: Basic Books.

11.  Shneiderman, Ben. (1977). The future of interactive systems and the emergence of direct manipulation. In Behaviour and Information Technology. Vol 1, 237-256.

12.  Shneiderman, Ben. (1982). The future of interactive systems and the emergence of direct manipulation. In Behaviour and Information Technology. Vol 1, 237-256.

13.  Shneiderman, Ben. (1997). Direct Manipulation for Comprehensible, Predictable, and Controllable User Interfaces. In Proceedings of IUI97, 1997 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces. Orlando, FL, January 6-9, 1997, 33-39.

14.  Shneiderman, Ben. (2000). Creating Creativity: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, Vol. 7, No. 1, March.

15.  Sims, K. Artificial Evolution for Computer Graphics. In Computer Graphics, 25 (1991) 319-328.

16.  Tinkel, K. (1995). Mastering multiple masters. In Adobe Magazine, November.

17.  Todd, S. and Latham, W (1999). The Mutation and Growth of Art by Computers. In Bentley, Peter J., Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufmann.